For more information about CIEL's Trade & Sustainable Development Program, contact Baskut Tuncak.


CIEL relies on the spirit of charitable giving from supporters and friends like you. Together we can make a critical difference.
Together we can make a critical difference, Donate Now

Trade and Sustainable Development Program - Research & Publications

Toxic partnership: A critique of the ACC-CEFIC proposal for trans-Atlantic cooperation on chemicals (CIEL/Client Earth) (March 2014)

"T" for Toxic? Seven things everyone should know about the EU-US trade neotiations (aka "TTIP" or TAFTA") and chemical regulation [US Version] [EU Version - English] [EU Version - Francais] [EU Version - Espanol] [EU Version - Portugues] (Tuncak) (February 2014)

Opposition to the inclusion of investor-state dispute settlement in the Trans-Atlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (December 2013)

Trans-Atlantic Trade and investment Partnership (TTIP) Monitor, First Edition(Tuncak) (November 2013)

Statement and oral testimony of Carroll Muffett, President and CEO, Center for International Environmental Law (CIEL), as delivered to the U.S. House Energy and Commerce Committee Subcommitee on Manufacturing Commerce and Trade

New UNCITRAL Arbitration Ruleson Transparency: Application, Content, and Next Steps (CIEL, IISD, and Vale Columbia Center) (2013)

REDD: Addressing the Drivers -- A case for the WTO? (June 2013)

Webcasting as a Tool to Increase Transparency in Dispute Settlement Proceedings (Plagakis) (June 2010)

Transparency and Public Participation in WTO Dispute Settlement (December 2009)

Is World Trade A Barrier To Climate ChangeIs World Trade Law a Barrier to Saving Our Climate? (CIEL/FOE) (September 2009)
Legal analysis on World trade rules and relationship with national implementation of climate change measures. Demonstrates the World Trade Organization rules and agreements can be interpreted to allow flexibility for stonger national climate change measures – particularly if rules are adopted pursuant to a global climate treaty.

Investment Provisions in the Korea FTA: A Radical Shift of Power to Foreign Investors (March 2009)

Revision of UNCITRAL Rules and Investement Arbitration: An Update on the Ongoing Process to Increase Transparency in Invesment Arbitration (CIE/IISD) (February 2009)

Report of the WTO Public Forum, Addressing global environmental challenges: What to expect from future dispute settlement panels? (CIEL/FOEE) (November 2008)

Combating Corruption Through more Transparent Dispute Settlement Processes [Presentation at the 13th International Anti-Corruption Conference] (Bernasconi) (November 2008)

Standards, Labelingand Certification [Prepared for Trade and Climate Change Seminar, June 2008] (IAE/CIEL) (August 2008)

New Thinking on Trade Policy and Development: Trade and Climate Change (CIEL/PSE) (Bernasconi) (July 2008) [Also available in French, German and Spanish.]

Intellectual Property, Bilateral Agreements and Sustainable Development: Intellectual Property in the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement (Garcia) (June 2008)

Revising the UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules to Address Invester-State Arbitrations [Revised] (CIEL/IISD) (December 2007)

Proposed Revisions to the UNCITRAL Rules for Investor-State Arbitrations (CIEL/IISD) (December 2007)

EEZ Fisheries Access Arrangements and the WTO Subsidies Agreement - Legal Analysis and Options for Improved Disciplines (Orellana) (December 2007)

Citizens Guide To WIPOA Citizen's Guide to WIPO (CIEL) (October 2007)

Amicus Curiae Brief to the Appellate Body in Brazil – Measures Affecting Imports of Retreaded Tyres (October 2007)

The Gap between Indigenous Peoples' Demands and WIPO's Framework on Traditional Knowledge [An earlier version of this paper by Palesa Tlhapi Guye of CIEL was published in the South Centre/CIEL IP Quarterly 2nd Quarter 2007] (September 2007)

Putting Health on the Fast Track: Compliance with the Doha Declaration on Public Health as a Principal Negotiating Objective for Trade Promotion Authority (Lee) (August 2007)

Interpreting WTO Law and the Relevance of Multilateral Environmental Agreements
in EC-Biotech
(Background note to presentation by Nathalie Bernasconi-Osterwalder) (May 2007)

The Problem of Intellectual Property in Economic Partnership Agreements with the African, Caribbean and Pacific Countries (Shabalala) (May 2007)

Amicus Curiae Submission in the Suez/Vivendi Case (ICSID Case No. ARB/03/19 between Suez, Sociedad General de Aguas de Barcelona, S.A. and Vivendi Universal, S.A. and The Republic of Argentina) (April 2007) [English] [Spanish]

The European Approach to Intellectual Property in European Partnership Agreements with the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of Countries (Shabalala) (April 2007)

Intellectual Property, Bilateral Agreements and Sustainable Development: A Strategy Note [The second in a series of papers on strategies for challenging, negotiating and implementing IP provisions in free trade agreements with the US] ('t Hoen) (April 2007)

Amicus Curiae Submission in the Biwater - Tanzania Case (ICSID Case No. ARB/05/22 before the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes between Biwater Gauff (Tanzania) Limited and United Republic of Tanzania (March 2007)

Intellectual Property, Bilateral Agreements, and Sustainable Development: The Challenges of Implementation (Roffe) (January 2007)

Petition for Amicus Curiae Status in Case No. ARB/05/22 before the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes between Biwater Gauf (Tanzania) Limited and United Republic of Tanzania (November 2007)

The WHO & Intellectual Property in Bilateral Free Trade Agreements (Shabalala & Bernasconi) (November 2006)

Democratizing International Dispute ettlement: The Case of Trade and Investment Disputes (Bernasconi) (October 2006)

A New Facilitative Mechanism at the WTO to Address Non-tariff Measures: Issues for Consideration (Bernasconi & Prystowsky) (August 2006)

Amicus Curiae Brief to the WTO in Brazil – Measures Affecting Imports of Retreaded Tyres (WT/DS332) (July 2006)

International Standards and Technical Barriers to Trade [R053 - Legal Opinion Summary] (ISEAL/CIEL) (July 2006)

Referencing International Standards in Government Procurement [R052 - Legal Opinion Summary] (ISEAL/CIEL) (July 2006)

The Ebb and Flow of Water Privatization (Plagakis) (March 2006)

EC-Biotech: Overview and Analysis of the Panel's Interim Report (Bernasconi and Oliva) (March 2006)

The Brazil - Retreaded Tires Case [Background paper] (Bernasconi and Orellana) (March 2006)

Environment and TradeEnvironment and Trade: A WTO Guide to Jurisprudence (A 2MB pdf version is also available)
By Nathalie Bernasconi-Osterwalder, Daniel Magraw, Maria Julia Oliva and Marcos Orellana and Elisabeth Tuerk. Foreword by Philippe Roch.
(December 2005)

This Guide, authored by five world leaders on international environmental and trade law at the Center for International Environmental Law (CIEL), is an accessible, comprehensive, one-of-a-kind compendium of environment and trade jurisprudence under the WTO. Providing an overview for both experts and non-experts of the major themes relevant to environment and trade, it also analyses how WTO tribunals have approached these themes in concrete disputes and provides selected excerpts of the most significant cases.

Disclosure Requirements: Ensuring Mutual Supportiveness Between the WTO TRIPS Agreement and the CBD (IUCN, ICTSD, CIEL, IDDRI, and QUNO, November 2005)

Trade and the Environment: Where Do We Stand after Doha (Bernasconi) (WTO's Contribution to Sustainable Development Governance: Balancing Opportunities and Threats, Paris) (October 2005)

Fresh Water and International Economic Law (Brown Weiss, Boisson de Chazourne, Bernasconi-Osterwalder (August 2005)

NAMA Negotiations: An Environmental Perspective (Bernasconi-Osterwalder & Sherman) (July 2005)

Protecting Traditional Knowledge: Misappropriation, Intellectual Property, and the Future of the IGC (Intergovernmental Committee On Intellectual Property And Genetic Resources, Traditional Knowledge And Folklore, 8th Session, Geneva) (June 2005) (CIEL/South Centre)

Prior and Informed Consent and Access to Genetic Resources (Olvia & Perrault) (WTO Public Symposium, Geneva) (April 2005)

CBD Request to WIPO on the Interrelation of Access to Genetic Resources and Disclosure Requirements: Observations from the Center for International Environmental Law (CIEL)
on the First Draft of the WIPO Examination of the Issues
(April 2005) (Oliva)

Eco-Labeling Standards, Green Procurement, and the WTO: Significance for World Bank Borrowers (March, 2005)

The Doha Work Programe: Still the Development Agenda? [As published in Sustainable Development International, 12th edition] (December 2004) (Oliva)

El párrafo 19 de la Declaración de Doha hacia Hong Kong: ¿Un paso adelante para el respaldo mutuo entre el Acuerdo sobre los ADPIC y el Convention sobre la Diversidad Biológica? [PUENTES] (December 2004) (Oliva)

CBD Request to WIPO on the Interrelation of Access to Genetic Resources and Disclosure Requirements: Establishing an adequate framework for a WIPO Response (South Centre/CIEL) (Fall 2004)

Specific Trade Obligations in the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (Bridges (ICTSD), Vol. 8, No. 7, July-Aug. 2004, at 9) (Wiser & Orellana)

Amicus Curiae Brief to the World Trade Organization: European Communities - Measures Affecting the Approval and Marketing of Biotech Products [A version of this publication is also published in Bridges.] (The Motion to submit the brief is also available) (June 2004)

Science and Precaution in EC - Biotech: A Brief Analysis of the First U.S. Submission (May 2004) (Oliva)

Amicus Curiae Brief in the Methanex Case (2004).

Submission of Non-Disputing Parties Bluewater Network, Communities for a Better Environment, and Center for International Environmental Law [In the Arbitration under Chapter Eleven of the North America Free Trade Agreement and the UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules between Methanex Corporation and the United States of America] (March 2004)

A Review of The Intergovernmental Committee on Genetic Resources, Traditional Knowledge and Folklore at WIPO (South Centre/CIEL) (December 2003) (Lettington & Nnadozie)

Export Credit Agencies and the World Trade Organization (November 2003) (Orellana) [Draft version]

International Law on Investment: The Minimum Standard of Treatment (November 2003) (Orellana) (Originally presented at the World Trade Organization's 5th Ministerial in August, 2003)

GATS, Water and the Environment: Implications of the General Agreement on Trade in Services for Water Resources (World Wildlife Fund/CIEL, November 2003) (Tuerk & Holland)

The Right to Water and Trade in Services: Assesing the Impact of GATS Negotiations on Water Regulation (October 2003) (Tuerk & Krajewski )

Intellectual Property in the FTAA: Little Opportunity and Much Risk [Also available in Spanish] (October 2003) (Oliva) [TE03-1]

The State of Trade and Environmental Law 2003: Implications for Doha and Beyond (International Institute for Sustainable Development/CIEL, 2003) (Mann & Porter) [TE03-2]

GATS and Water: Retaining Policy Space to Serve the Poor (August 2003) (Ostrovsky, Speed & Tuerk) (Presented at the World Trade Organization's 5th Ministerial in August, 2003)

Second Guessing National Policy Choices: Necessity, Proportionality and Balance in the WTO Services Negotiations (August 2003) (Kennett, Neumann & Tuerk) (Presented at the World Trade Organization's 5th Ministerial in August, 2003)

Going with the Flow: How International Trade, Finance and Investment Regimes Affect the Provision of Water to the Poor (En Español) (July 2003) (Tuerk) (Presented at the World Trade Organization's 5th Ministerial in August, 2003)

International Legal Framework on Foreign Investment [Background Paper prepared for the Fifth Ministerial Conference "Environment for Europe] (May 2003) (Bernasconi-Osterwalder) [TE03-3]

The General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and current GATS Negotiations (WEED/CIEL, April 2003) (Fuchs & Tuerk) (A draft version is also available as a 1MB PDF document.) [TE03-4]

Water Traded: A CIEL Issue Brief for the Third Wold Water Forum (March 2003) [TE03-5]

The WTO Services Negotiations: Some Strategic Considerations (South Centre/CIEL, January 2003) (Mashayekhi & Tuerk) (Electronic copy currently available from the South Center) [TE03-6]

Indigenous Peoples, Mining, and International Law (2002) (Orellana) (English & Spanish versions of this paper are posted at the International Institute for Environment and Development]

Issues Linked to the Convention on Biological Diversity in the World Trade Organization Negotiations: Implementing Doha Mandates (October 2002) (Vivas) [TE02-1]

The International Debate on Traditional Knowledge as Prior Art in the Patent System: Issues and Options for Developing Countries (October 2002) (Ruiz) [TE02-2]

What Agenda for the Review of TRIPS?: A Sustainable Development Perspective (Summer 2002) (Vivas) [TE02-3]

WTO Negotiations to Liberalize Trade in Services: New Challenges for Sustainable Development (One of eight issue briefs presented at the World Summit on Sustainable Development in August, 2002)

Clarifying the Relationship Between Economic and Environmental Governance: Some Key Challenges (One of eight issue briefs presented at the World Summit on Sustainable Development in August, 2002)

Foreign Investment and Sustainable Development (One of eight issue briefs presented at the World Summit on Sustainable Development in August, 2002)

Genetic Resources, Traditional Knowledge and Intellectual Property Rights: Promoting Synergies for Sustainable Development (One of eight issue briefs presented at the World Summit on Sustainable Development in August, 2002)

Brief on the Treatment of Intellectual Property in the Doha WTO Ministerial Declaration: Mandated Negotiations and Reviews (February 2002) (Vivas) [TE02-4]

Frontiers in Trade: The Clean Development Mechanism and the General Agreement on Trade in Services (2 Int. J. Global Environmental Issues 288 (2002)) (Wiser) [TE02-5]

Mining Certification: A Field of Growing Trade Interest (November/December 2002) (Orellana) (Excerpted from Bridges Between Trade and Sustainable Development, located at

The World Trade Organization Negotiations on Services: The Regulatory State up for Grabs (September 2002) (Howse & Tuerk) (Available at

Public Services and the Scope of the General Agreement on Trade in Services (2001) (Krajewski) [TE01-1]

Towards a Full Review of the WTO's Trips Agreement Under Article 71.1 (April 2001) (Stilwell & Tuerk) [TE01-2]

Non-Violation Complaints and the TRIPS Agreement: Some Considerations for WTO Members (May 2001) (Stilwell & Tuerk) [TE01-3]

Review of Article 27.3(B) (June, 2001) (Stilwell) [TE01-4]

Preliminary Comments on Trips-Related Aspects of First Draft Ministerial Declaration and First Draft Decision on Implementation: Implications for Developing Countries (September, 2001) (Stilwell & Vivas) [TE01-5]

Towards Coherent Environmental and Economic Governance: Legal and Practical Approaches to MEA-WTO Linkages (CIEL/EIIEEP, November, 2001) (Stilwell & Tarasofsky) [TE01-6]

Treatment of Biodiversity-Related Issues in the WTO: Preliminary Comments on the Revised Documents for the Doho Ministerial Conference (November, 2001) (Vivas & Tuerk) [TE01-7]

Assessment of Trade in Services in the Context of the Current GATS Negotiations in the WTO (November, 2001) (Tuerk & Krajewski) [TE01-8]

Guia Legal de Biocomercio para la Region Andina (November, 2001) (Vivas) [TE01-9]

Comments on Guidelines for Implementation of Executive Order 13141:  Environmental Review of Proposed Trade Agreements (2000) [TE00-1]

An Activist's Handbook on Genetically Modified Organisms and the WTO (Consumer's Choice Council, 1999) (Stilwell & Van Dyke) [TE99-1]

Effective Dispute Resolution:  A Review of Options for Dispute Resolution Mechanisms and Procedures (World Wildlife Fund & CIEL, 1999) (Downes & Penhoet) [TE99-2]

Codex, Substantial Equivalence and WTO Threats to National GMO Labeling Schemes (Spring 1999) (Stilwell &Van Dyke) [TE99-3]

Assessing the Effects on Forests of Proposed Trade Liberalization in the Forest Product Sector:  Comments Submitted to the Office of the United States Trade Representative and the Council on Environmental Equality (1999) (Downes) [TE99-4]

Investment Agreement of the Americas:  Environmental, Economic and Social Perspectives  (CIEL/El Instituto del Tercer Mundo/Preamble Center, 1999) [TE99-5]

Los Acuerdos sobre Inversión en las Américas: Perspectivas Económicas, Ambientales y Sociales  (CIEL/El Instituto del Tercer Mundo/Preamble Center, 1999) [TE99-6]

Amicus Brief to the Appellate Body on United States - Import Prohibition of Certain Shrimp and Shrimp Products (CIEL/CMC/EFL/MAP/PEN/Sobrevivencia) (1999)

Trade Measures and Multilateral Environmental Agreements:  Resolving Uncertainty and Removing the WTO Chill Factor, Discussion Paper (1999) (WWF/CIEL) (Stilwell & Tuerk) [TE99-8]

Tree Trade: Liberalization of International Commerce in Forest Products - Risks and Opportunities (1999) (World Resouces Institute/CIEL) (Sizer, Downes & Kaimowitz) [TE99-9]

Safe Trade in the 21st Century (1999) (Greenpeace/CIEL) [TE99-10]

Implication of Proposals to Consider Trade in Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) at the WTO (1999) (Stilwell) [TE99-11]

WTO High-Level Symposium on Trade and Environment (1999) (Zaelke) [TE99-12]

Applying the EPTSD Framework to Reconcile Trade, Development & Environmental Policy Concerns (1999) (WWF/CIEL) (Stilwell) [TE99-13]

International Environmental Law and Foreign Direct Investment (1998) (Hunter & Porter) [TE98-1]

The 1999 WTO Review of Life Patenting Under TRIPS: Revised Discussion Paper (A Spanish version is also available) (November 1998) (Downes & Stilwell) [TE98-3]

Fisheries Conservation and Trade Rules: Ensuring That Trade Law Promotes Sustainable Fisheries (CIEL/Greenpeace, 1998) (Downes & Van Dyke) [TE98-4]

Implementing the Principles of the Public Participating Convention in International Organizations: Background Document for NGO Session, 3-6pm; June 24, 1998 (FoE Europe, Belgium/CIEL, 1998)(Saladin & Van Dyke) [TE98-5]

Dispute Settlement in the WTO: A Crisis for Sustainable Development (Discussion Paper, May 1998) (CIEL/WWF/CNI/Oxfam) [TE98-6]

Applying Trade Rules to Timber Ecolabeling:  A Review of Timber Ecolabeling and the WTO Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (Discussion Paper, February 1997) (Cook, Downes, Van Dyke & Weiner) [TE97-1]

Trade and Environment, in Tom Barry & Martha Honey, eds., Global Focus: A New Foreign Policy Agenda 1997-1998 (Interhemispheric Resource Center and Institute for Policy Studies, 1997) (Hunter & Van Dyke) [TE97-2]

Comercio Internacional Y Medio Ambiente: Derecho, EconomÍa y Politicas (1995) (Alanis, Housman, Orbuch, & Zaelke, eds.) (Translation by Eugenia Bec) (Received special award in the Ecology, Environment and Law Category at the Buenos Aires International Book Fair, April 1997) [TE97-3]

Effectiveness of Trade & Positive Measures in Multilateral Environmental Agreements: Lessons from the Montreal Protocol Agreements (United Nations Environment Programme, 1997) (Goldberg, et al.) [TE97-4]

Thinking Globally and Acting Locally: The Internationalization of State and Local Environmental Law in Florida 2020: Visions of Our Future, The Third Annual Public Interest Environmental Conference (Journal of the Public Interest Environmental Conference, Vol. 1, No. 1, Spring 1997) (Hunter) [TE97-5]

Using Intellectual Property as a Tool to Protect Traditional Knowledge: Recommendations for Next Steps (November 1997) (Downes) [BW97-1]

Chilean Supreme Court Rejects Controversial Trillium Logging Project (March 1997)

A Handbook for Obtaining Documents from the World Trade Organization (December 1996) (Van Dyke & Weiner) [TE96-1]

Results of CIEL Sponsored Paraguay National Workshop on Trade and Environment Competitiveness (November 1996)

Natural Resource Subsidies, Trade and Environment: The Case of Forests and Fisheries (1996) (G. Porter) [TE96-2]
[HTML version available at]

An Introduction to the WTO Decision on Document Restriction (1996) (Van Dyke & Weiner) [TE96-3]

The Use of Trade Measures in Select Multilateral Environmental Agreements (United Nations Environment Programme, 1995) (Housman, Goldberg, Van Dyke, & Zaelke, eds.) [TE95-1]

Democratizing International Trade Decision-making, 27 Cornell Law Journal 699 (1995) (Housman) [TE95-2]

Chilean Accession to the North American Free Trade Agreement, Testimony of Robert Housman Before Ways and Means Committee, Trade Subcommittee, of the U.S. House of Representatives (June 21, 1995) (Housman) [TE95-3]

GATT Tuna-Dolphin II: Environmental Protection Continues to Clash with Free Trade, CIEL Brief No. 2 (June, 1994) (Goldberg) [TE94-1]

The North American Free Trade Agreement's Lessons for Reconciling Trade and the Environment, 30 Stanford Journal of International Law 379 (1994) (Housman) [TE94-2]

Promoting Environmental Standards Through Trade and Other Legal Mechanisms, Testimony of Durwood Zaelke Before the Subcommittee on International Development, Finance, Trade and Monetary Policy (March 23, 1994) (Zaelke) [TE94-3]

Environmental Ramifications of the Final Agreement of the Uruguay Round of GATT, Testimony of the Center for International Environmental Law on Behalf of the Sierra Club and Defenders of Wildlife before the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation (February 3, 1994) (Housman) [TE94-4]

Trade and the Environment: Law, Economics and Policy (Island Press, 1993) (Housman, Orbuch, & Zaelke, eds.) [Available from Island Press]

The Application of the National Environmental Policy Act to the North American Free Trade Agreement, Testimony of the Center for International Environmental Law and the National Audubon Society before the Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works (August 9, 1993) (Housman & Orbuch) [TE93-2]

Environmental and Economic Policies Affecting United States Competitiveness, Testimony of the Center for International Environmental Law before the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation (May 18, 1993) (Housman) [TE93-3]

Enforcement of Environmental Laws Under a Supplemental Agreement to the North American Free Trade Agreement, 5 Georgetown International Environmental Law Review 593 (1993) (Housman & Orbuch) [TE93-4]

Integrating Labor and Environmental Concerns Into the North American Free Trade Agreement: A Look Back and a Look Ahead, 8 American University Journal of International Law Policy 3 (CIEL, 1993) (Housman & Orbuch) [TE93-5]

Interbasin Water Transfers After NAFTA (1993) (Hunter & Orbuch) [TE93-6]

Making Trade and Environmental Policies Mutually Reinforcing: Forging Competitive Sustainability, 23 Environmental Law 545 (1993) (Housman & Zaelke) [TE93-7]

Open Borders, Broken Promises, Privatization and Foreign Investment: Protecting the Environment Through Contractual Clauses (Greenpeace, 1993) (Hunter & Downes) [TE93-8]

Trade, Environment, and Sustainable Development: A Primer, 15 Hastings International & Comparative Law Review 535 (1992) (Housman & Zaelke) [TE92-1]

A Kantian Approach to Trade and the Environment, 49 Washington & Law Law Review 1373 (1992) (Housman) [TE92-3]

Sustainable Development (Patent Pending): International Issues in Intellectual Property Rights and Their Environmental Impact (1992) (Heller) [TE92-4]

A Survey of United States Laws Restricting the Export of Controlled and Hazardous Substances (1992) (Goldberg) [TE92-5]

Frictions Between International Trade Agreements and Environmental Protections (The Greening of World Trade, 1992) (Zaelke, Housman & Stanley) [TE92-6]


Learn More!

To receive CIEL's monthy newletter, click here.



Multinational Flags In Front of Building


CIEL (UNITED STATES) | 1350 CONNECTICUT AVENUE, NW SUITE #1100 | WASHINGTON, DC 20036| PHONE: (202) 785-8700 FAX: (202) 785-8701 | E-MAIL:
CIEL (SWITZERLAND) | 15 RUE DES SAVOISES, 1205 GENEVA, SWITZERLAND | PHONE:41-22-789-0500 FAX: 41-22-789-0739 | E-MAIL: